research

 
Overviews & Debates
Academic Work

Bardall, Gabrielle, Elin Bjarnegård, and Jennifer M. Piscopo. 2019. “How is Political Violence Gendered? Disentangling Motives, Forms, and Impacts.” Political Studies.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2017. “Violence against Women in Politics.” Journal of Democracy 28(1): 74-88.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2019. "Global Feminist Collaborations and the Concept of Violence against Women in Politics." Journal of International Affairs 72 (2): 77-94.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2020. Violence against Women in Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanín. 2016. “Gender and Political Violence in Latin America: Concepts, Debates, and Solutions.”  Política y Gobierno 23(1): 125-157.

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanín. 2016. “Violence Against Women in Politics: A Defense of the Concept.” Política y Gobierno 23(2): 459-490.

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanín. 2020. ​“The Cost of Doing Politics? Analyzing Violence and Harassment against Female Politicians.” Perspectives on Politics 18(3): 740-755. Printable PDF

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2016. “State Capacity, Criminal Justice, and Political Rights: Rethinking Violence against Women in Politics.” Política y Gobierno 23(2): 437-458.

In Spanish

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanin. 2016. “Violencia contra las mujeres en política: en defensa del concepto.” Política y Gobierno 23(2): 459-490.

 

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanin. 2016. “Género y violencia política en América Latina: Conceptos, debates y soluciones.” Política y Gobierno 23(1): 127-162.

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2016. "Capacidad estatal, justicia criminal
y derechos políticos: Nueva mirada al debate sobre la violencia
contra las mujeres en política
." Política y Gobierno 23(2): 437-458.

Program Guidance

National Democratic Institute. 2016. #NotTheCost: Stopping Violence against Women in Politics: Program Guidance. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Democratic Institute. 2021. #NotTheCost: Stopping Violence against Women in Politics: A Renewed Call to Action. Washington, DC: NDI.

UN Women and Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2018. Violence against Women in Politics: Expert Group Meeting Report and Recommendations. New York: UN Women.

UN Women. 2020. Data and Violence against Women in Politics: Expert Group Meeting Report and Recommendations. New York: UN Women.

Practitioner Reports
Violence in Elections

Bardall, Gabrielle. 2011. Breaking the Mold: Understanding Gender and Electoral Violence. Washington, DC: IFES.

Bardall, Gabrielle et al. 2018. Violence Against Women in Elections in Haiti: An IFES Assessment. Washington, DC: IFES.

Bardall, Gabrielle. 2018. Violence against Women in Elections in Zimbabwe: An IFES Assessment. Washington, DC: IFES.

Bibler, Sarah and Naila Rafique. 2019. Violence Against Women in Elections in Afghanistan: An IFES Assessment. Washington, DC: IFES.
 

Bina, Francesca, Esraa Mahadin, and Mohammad Khasawneh. 2020. Violence against Women in Elections in Jordan. Amman: Karak Castle Center and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. 

 

Dyer, Alison, Gabrielle Bardall, and Terry Ann Rogers. 2019. Violence Against Women in Elections in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville:
An IFES Assessment
. Washington, DC: IFES.

Dyer, Alison, Gabrielle Bardall, and Terry Ann Rogers. 2019. Violence Against Women in Elections in Papua New Guinea: An IFES Assessment. Washington, DC: IFES.

Hubbard, Caroline and Claire De Soi. 2016. Votes without Violence. Washington, DC: NDI. Website with data.

Huber, Jessica and Lisa Kammerud. 2016. Violence against Women in Elections. Arlington, VA: IFES.

Semakafu, Ave Maria. 2016. Violence against Women in Elections: VAWE Evidence for 2015 Tanzania General Elections. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Women Cross-Party Platform and UN Women.

United Nations Development Programme and UN Women. 2015. Inclusive Electoral Processes. New York: UNDP and UN Women.

United Nations Development Programme and UN Women. 2017. Preventing Violence against Women in Elections: A Programming Guide. New York: UNDP and UN Women.

Violence against Politicians

 

Alanis, Carmen. 2020. Violence against Women in Politics. Geneva: Kofi Annan Foundation.

Amnesty International. 2018. Troll Patrol Findings.

Amnesty International India. 2020. Troll Patrol India: Exposing Online Abuse Faced by Women Politicians in India. Bengaluru: Amnesty International India. 

 

Atalanta. 2018. (Anti)Social Media: The Benefits and Pitfalls of Digital for Female Politicians

Bani Mustafa, Wafa. 2020. "Political Violence against Women: A Successful Campaign in Jordan." Background paper for UN Commission on the Status of Women Meeting in March 2021.

Barbara Lee Family Foundation. 2021. Putting Sexism in its Place on the Campaign Trail. Cambridge, MA: BLFF.

Centre for Social Research and UN Women. 2014. Violence against Women in Politics: A Study Conducted in India, Nepal, and Pakistan. New Delhi: CSR/UN Women.

Cox, Dame Laura. 2021. "A Woman’s Place is in the House: Reclaiming
Civility, Tolerance and Respect in Political Life
." Political Quarterly. Early View.

Culhane, Leah. 2019. Sexual Harassment in Parliament: Protecting MPs, Peers, Volunteers, and Staff. London: Fawcett Society.

Dhrodia, Azmina. 2017. “Unsocial Media: Tracking Twitter Abuse against Women MPs.” Medium, September 3. 

Digital Rights Foundation. 2018. Online Participation of Female Politicians in Pakistan’s General Elections 2018

Di Meco, Lucina. 2019. #ShePersisted: Women, Politics, & Power in the New Media World. Washington, DC: The Wilson Center.

Druciarek, Małgorzata and Aleksandra Niżyńsk. 2020. "It Has Become So Pervasive that I Keep Forgetting about It": Violence against Women on the Polish Political Scene. Warsaw: Institute of Public Affairs. 

 

Greg-Obi,  Otito, Iryna Lylyk, Gennadiy Korzhovand Olena Buchunska. 2019. Online Violence Against Women in Politics in Ukraine: An IFES Assessment. Washington, DC: IFES.

Guerin, Cécile and Eisha Maharasingam-Shah. 2020. Public Figures, Public Rage: Candidate Abuse on Social Media. Washington, DC: Institute for Strategic Dialogue.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2016. Sexism, Harassment, and Violence against Women Parliamentarians. Geneva: IPU.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2018. Sexism, Harassment, and Violence against Women in Parliaments in Europe. Geneva: IPU and Council of Europe. 

Jankowicz, Nina, Jillian Hunchak, Alexandra Pavliuc, Celia Davies, Shannon Pierson, and Zoë Kaufmann. 2021. Malign Creativity: How Gender, Sex, and Lies Are Weaponized against Women Online. Washington, DC: Wilson Center.

Jewell, Delyth. 2018. Violence Against Women in Politics Case Study: United Kingdom. London: Westminster Foundation for Democracy.

Judson, Ellen, Asli Atay, Alex Krasodomski-Jones, Rose Lasko-Skinner, and Josh Smith. 2020. Engendering Hate: The Contours of State-Aligned Gendered Disinformation Online. London: Demos and National Democratic Institute.

Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation. 2020. Women's Rights in the Western Balkans: Women in Politics, Gender-Based Violence, and Security for Women Human Rights Defenders in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia. Stockholm: Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation. 

La Strada - Ukraine. 2018. Violence Against Women in Politics Case Study: Ukraine. London: Westminster Foundation for Democracy.

Miftari, Edita. 2019. Violence Against Women in Politics in Bosnia and Herzegovina. London: Westminster Foundation for Democracy.

National Democratic Institute. 2018. No Party to Violence: Analyzing Violence against Women in Political Parties. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Democratic Institute. 2019. Tweets That Chill: Analyzing Online Violence against Women in Politics. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Democratic Institute. 2020. Violence Against Women In Politics in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Democratic Institute. 2021. Political Participation and Violence against Women in Politics in Southeastern Europe. Sarjevo: NDI.

Oates, Sarah, Olya Gurevich, Chris Walker, and Lucina Di Meco. 2019. Running While Female: Using AI to Track how Twitter Commentary Disadvantages Women in the 2020 U.S. Primaries. SSRN Paper.
 

Šimonović, Dubravka. 2018. A/73/301: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences on Violence against Women in Politics. New York: UN.


Soudani Belhaj, Besma and Najla Abbes. 2021. Outlawing Gender-Based Political Violence: Can Tunisia’s Example Carve a Multilateral Path for Others? Brussels: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.

Van Sant, Kristina, Rolf Fredheim, and Gundars Bergmanis-Korāts. 2021. Abuse of Power: Coordinated Online Harassment of Finnish Government Ministers. Riga: NATO Strategic Communications
Centre of Excellence.

In Spanish

 

Alanis, Carmen. 2020. Violencia contra las Mujeres en la Política. Ginebra: Kofi Annan Foundation.

Arboleda, María. 2012. Levantado el Velo: Estudio Sobre Acoso y Violencia Política en Contra de las Mujeres Autoridades Públicas Electas a Nivel Local en Ecuador. Quito. ONU Mujeres and AMUNE.

Barrera, Lourdes V., Anaiz Zamora, Érika Pérez Domínguez, Ixchel Aguirre, and Jessica Esculloa. 2018. Violencia Política a través de la Tecnologías en México. Mexico City: Luchadoras and NDI.

Escalante, Ana Cecilia and Nineth  Méndez. 2011. Sistematización de Experiencias de Acoso Político que Viven o Han Vivido las Mujeres que Ocupan Puestos de Elección Popular en el Nivel Local. Santo Domingo: ONU Mujeres and INAMU.

Herrera, Morena, Mitzy Arias, and Sara García. 2011. Hostilidad y Violencia Política: Develando Realidades de Mujeres Autoridades Municipales. San Salvador: INSTRAW and ISDEMU.

Hevia Rocha, Teresa. 2017. Diagnóstico sobre las Causas de la Violencia Política contra las Mujeres en México. Mexico City: PRI.

Machicao, Ximena. 2004. Acoso Político: Un Tema Urgente que Afrontar. La Paz: PADEP-GTZ.

Quintanilla Zapata, Tammy. 2012. Estudio Sobre el Acoso Político hacia las Mujeres en el Perú. Lima: Centro Flora Tristán, Diakonía Perú, and Calad.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2016. Mujeres y Participación Política: El Fenómeno de la Violencia contra las Mujeres en Política. Bogotá: Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy.

Rojas Valverde, María Eugenia. 2012. Acoso y Violencia Política en Contra de Mujeres Autoridades Públicas Electas en los Gobiernos Locales-Municipales en Bolivia. La Paz: ONU Mujeres, ACOBOL, and AECID.

Rojas Valverde, María Eugenia. 2014. Derechos Políticos de las Mujeres: Entre la Seguridad y la Violencia Política de Alto Riesgo. La Paz: Tribunal Supremo Electoral.

Torres García, Isabel. 2010. Derechos Políticos de las Mujeres y Acoso Político Como Práctica de Discriminación. San José: ONU-Habitat Costa Rica.

Violence against Staffers and Volunteers

Culhane, Leah. 2019. Sexual Harassment in Parliament: Protecting MPs, Peers, Volunteers, and Staff. London: Fawcett Society.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2018. Sexism, Harassment, and Violence against Women in Parliaments in Europe. Geneva: IPU and Council of Europe. 

National Democratic Institute. 2018. No Party to Violence: Analyzing Violence against Women in Political Parties. Washington, DC: NDI.

Young Women's Leadership Network. 2018. It's Time: Addressing Sexual Violence in Political Institutions.

Violence against Activists

 

Amnesty International. 2015. Their Lives on the Line: Woman Human Rights Defenders Under Attack in Afghanistan. London: Amnesty International. 

 

Amnesty International. 2015. Defenders Under Attack! Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Rights in the Americas. London: Amnesty International. 

Amnesty International. 2018. Silenced Voices: Libyan Women Human Rights Defenders Under Attack. London: Amnesty International. 

Amnesty International. 2019. Challenging Power, Fighting Discrimination: A Call to Action to Recognise and Protect Women Human Rights Defenders. London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. 2021. The (R)age of Women: Stigma and Violence against Women Protesters. London: Amnesty International Mexico.

APWLD. 2007. Claiming Rights, Claiming Justice: A Guidebook on Women Human Right Defenders. Chiangmai: Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development.

 

Asoka, Kaavya. 2012. Global Report on the Situation of Women Human Rights Defenders. Bangkok: WHRDIC.

Barcia, Inmaculada. 2011. Urgent Responses for Women Human Rights Defenders at Risk: Mapping and Preliminary Assessment. Toronto: AWID.

Barcia, Inmaculada. 2014. Our Right to Safety: Women Human Rights Defenders’ Holistic Approach to Protection. Toronto: AWID.

Barcia, Inmaculada and Analía Penchaszadeh. 2012. Ten Insights to Strengthen Responses for Women Human Rights Defenders at Risk. Toronto: AWID.

Carlsson, Karin. 2020. Approach, Adjust or Avoid? A Descriptive Case Study on How Women Human Rights Defenders in Colombia Cope with Political Violence. MA Thesis, Uppsala University.

Center for Reproductive Rights. 2009. Defending Human Rights: Abortion Providers Facing Threats, Restrictions, and Harassment. New York: Center for Reproductive Rights.

Forst, Michel. 2019. A/HRC/40/60: Situation of Women Human Rights Defenders. New York: United Nations.

Human Rights Watch. 2016. “Good Girls Don’t Protest”: Repression and Abuse of Women Human Rights Defenders, Activists, and Protesters in Sudan. New York: HRW.

Human Rights Watch. 2019. “The Breath of the Government on My Back”: Attacks on Women’s Rights in Poland. New York: HRW.

IM-Defensoras. 2015. Violence against Women Human Rights Defenders in Mesoamerica: 2012-2014 Report

Kishi, Roudabeh, Melissa Pavlik, and Hilary Matfess. 2019. Terribly and Terrifyingly Normal’: Political Violence Targeting Women.

 

Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation. 2020. Women's Rights in the Western Balkans: Women in Politics, Gender-Based Violence, and Security for Women Human Rights Defenders in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia. Stockholm: Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation. 

Langhor, Vickie. 2013. ‘This Is Our Square’: Fighting Sexual Assault at Cairo Protests.” Middle East Report 268: 18-25.

National Democratic Institute. 2018. No Party to Violence: Analyzing Violence against Women in Political Parties. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Democratic Institute. 2019. Tweets That Chill: Analyzing Online Violence against Women in Politics. Washington, DC: NDI.

Real, Mary Jane N. 2005. International Consultation on Women Human Rights Defenders: Evaluation Report. Chiang Mai: International Campaign on Women Human Rights Defenders.

Rothschild, Cynthia. 2005. Written Out: How Sexuality Is Used to Attack Women’s Organizing. New York/New Brunswick: IGLHRC and CWGL.

Sekaggya, Margaret. 2010. HRC/16/44: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders. New York: United Nations.

Vlahakis, Maria. 2018. Breaking the Silence: Ending Online Violence and Abuse against Women's Rights Activists. London: Womankind Worldwide.

In Spanish

Amnistía Internacional. 2018. Pañuelos Verdes: Relatos de la Violencia Durante el Debate por la Legalización de l a Interrupción Legal del Embarazo. Buenos Aires: Amnistía Internacional.

Amnistía Internacional. 2021. La Ira(Era) de las Mujeres: Estigma y Violence Contra Mujeres Que Protestan. Londres: Amnistía Internacional México. 

Violence against Journalists

Amnesty International. 2018. Troll Patrol Findings

Barton, Alana and Hannah Storm. 2014. Violence and Harassment against Women in the News Media: A Global Picture. Washington, DC: IWMF and INSI.

Committee to Protect Journalists. 2016. Attacks on the Press: Gender and Media Freedom Worldwide. New York: CPJ.

Ferrier, Michelle. 2018. Attacks and Harassment: The Impact on Female Journalists and Their Reporting. Washington, DC: TrollBusters and IWMF.

Matloff, Judith. 2007. Unspoken: Foreign Correspondents and Sexual Abuse.” Columbia Journalism Review 46(1): 22-23.

Mijatović, Dunja. 2016. New Challenges to Freedom of Expression: Countering Online Abuse of Female Journalists. Vienna: OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media.

Posetti, Julie, Nermine Aboulez, Kalina Bontcheva, Jackie Harrison, and Silvio Waisbord. 2020. Online Violence Against Women Journalists: A Global Snapshot of Incidence and Impacts. Paris: UNESCO.

Posetti, Julie, Diana Maynard, and Kalina Bontcheva. 2021. Maria Ressa: Fighting an Onslaught of Online Violence: A Big Data Analysis. Washington, DC: International Center for Journalists. 

Posetti, Julie, Nabeelah Shabbir, Diana Maynard, Kalina Bontcheva, and Nermine Aboulez. 2021. The Chilling: Global Trends in Online Violence
against Women Journalists
. Paris: UNESCO.

Storm, Hannah and Helena Williams, eds. 2012. No Woman’s Land: On the Frontlines with Female Reporters. London: INSI.

Wolfe, Lauren. 2011. The Silencing Crime: Sexual Violence and Journalists. New York: Committee to Protect Journalists.

Scholarly Research
In English

Ahmad, Ali, Muhammad Rashid Hafeez, and Muhammad Shahbaz. 2020. “'Sell-outs, Fatsos or Whores?': Representation of Politically Active Pakistani Women on Social Media." Pakistan Social Sciences Review 4(1): 40-50.

Al-Rawi, Ahmed, Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, and Salma Amer. 2021. "Vocal, Visible, and Vulnerable: Female Politicians at the Intersection of Islamophobia, Sexism, and Liberal Multiculturalism." Feminist Media Studies. Online First.

Akhtar, Shazia and Catriona M. Morrison. 2019. "The Prevalence and Impact of Online Trolling of UK Members of Parliament." Computers in Human Behavior 99: 322-327.

Alam, Zainab. 2021. "Violence against Women in Politics: The Case of Pakistani Women's Activism." Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 9(1): 21-46.

Anderson, Karrin Vasby. 1999. "'Rhymes with Rich': 'Bitch' as a Tool of Containment in Contemporary American Politics." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 2(4): 599-623.

Ballington, Julie, 2018. “Turning the Tide on Violence against Women in Politics: How Are We Measuring Up?” Politics & Gender 14(4): 695-701.

 

Bardall, Gabrielle. 2013. “Gender-Specific Election Violence: The Role of Information and Communication Technologies.” Stability 2(3): 1-11.

Bates, Lis. 2018. "Justice for Victims of Sexual Abuse and Harassment: Lessons for Westminster?" Journal of Gender-Based Violence 2(2): 397-402.

Berry, Marie E., Yolande Bouka, and Marilyn Muthoni Kamuru. 2020. "Implementing Inclusion: Gender, Quotas, Inequality, and Backlash in Kenya." Politics & Gender. Online First.

Berthet, Valentine and Johanna Kantola. 2020. "Gender, Violence, and Political Institutions: Struggles over Sexual Harassment in the European Parliament." Social Politics. Online First.

Biroli, Flávia. 2016. “Political Violence against Women in Brazil: Expressions and Definitions.” Direito & Práxis 7(15): 557-589.

Biroli, Flávia. 2018. “Violence against Women and Reactions to Gender Equality in Politics.” Politics & Gender 14(4): 681-685.

Biroli, Flávia. 2020. "Violence against Women in Politics and Public Life, Democratic Backsliding, and Far-Right Politics." Background paper for UN Commission on the Status of Women Meeting in March 2021.

Bjarnegård, Elin. 2018. “Making Gender Visible in Election Violence.” Politics & Gender 14(4): 690-695.

Bjarnegård, Elin. 2021. "The Continuum of Election Violence: Gendered Candidate Experiences in the Maldives." International Political Science Review. Online First.

Bjarnegård, Elin, Sandra Håkansson, and Pär Zetterberg. 2020. "Gender and Violence against Political Candidates: Lessons from Sri Lanka." Politics & Gender. FirstView.

Calasanti, Anna and Bailey Gerrits. 2021. "'You're Not My Nanny!' Responses to Racialized Women Leaders during COVID-19." Politics, Groups, and Identities. Online First.

Castaño, Pablo. 2021. "Tackling Violence Against Women in Politics: The International Influence of the Pioneer Bolivian Legislation." Revista de Investigaciones Feministas 12(2): 623-637.

Charles, Drupa Dinnie et al. 2020. "Performing Gender, Doing Politics: Social Media and Women Election Workers in Kerala and Tamil Nadu." Paper presented at the Information and Communication Technologies and Development Conference, June 17–20, 2020, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Collier, Cheryl N. and Tracey Raney. 2018. “Canada’s Member-to-Member Code of Conduct on Sexual Harassment in the House of Commons: Progress or Regress?” Canadian Journal of Political Science 51(4): 795-815.

Collier, Cheryl N., and Tracey Raney. 2018. "Understanding Sexism and Sexual Harassment in Politics: A Comparison of Westminster Parliaments in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada." Social Politics 25(3): 432-455.

Collignon, Sofía, Rosie Campbell, and Wolfgang Rüdig. 2021. "The Gendered Harassment of Parliamentary Candidates in the UK." Political Quarterly. Online First.

Collignon, Sofia and Wolfgang Rüdig. 2020. "Harassment and Intimidation of Parliamentary Candidates in the United Kingdom." Political Quarterly 91(2): 422-429.

Collignon, Sofia and Wolfgang Rüdig. 2021. "Increasing the Cost of Female Representation? The Gendered Effects of Harassment, Abuse, and Intimidation towards Parliamentary Candidates in the UK." Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties. Online First.

Cossette, Paulina S. and Stephen C. Craig. 2020. Politicians Behaving Badly: Men, Women, and the Politics of Sexual Harassment. New York: Routledge.

 

Dalton, Emma. 2017. “Sexual Harassment of Women Politicians in Japan.” Journal of Gender-Based Violence 1(2): 205-219.

Dalton, Emma. 2019. "A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Sexual Harassment in the Japanese Political and Media Worlds." Women's Studies International Forum 77: 1-9.

Dalton, Emma. 2021. Sexual Harassment in Japanese Politics. New York: Palgrave.

Dos Santos, Pedro A. G. and Farida Jalalzai. 2021. Women's Empowerment and Disempowerment in Brazil: The Rise and Fall of President Dilma Rousseff. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 

Dragotto, Francesca, Elisa Giomi, and Sonia Maria Melchiorre. 2020. "Putting Women Back in Their Place: Reflections on Slut-shaming, the case Asia Argento, and Twitter in Italy." International Review of Sociology 30(1): 46-70.

Ebin, Chelsea. 2021. "Threats to Women/Women as Threats: Male Supremacy and the Anti-Statist Right." Laws 10: 41-43.

Erikson, Josefina, Sandra Håkansson, and Cecilia Josefsson. 2021. "Three Dimensions of Gendered Online Abuse: Analyzing Swedish MPs’ Experiences of Social Media." Perspectives on Politics. Online First.

Esposito, Eleonora. 2021. "Introduction: Critical Perspectives on Gender, Politics, and Violence." Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 9(1): 1-20. 

Esposito, Eleonora and Sole Alba Zollo. 2021. “'How Dare You Call Her a Pig, I Know Several Pigs Who Would Be Upset If They Knew': A Multimodal Critical Discursive Approach to Online Misogyny against UK MPs on YouTube." Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 9(1): 47-75.

Fernández Villanueva, Concepción and Gabriel Bayarri Toscano. 2021. "Legitimation of Hate and Political Violence through Memetic Images: The Bolsonaro Campaign."  Communication & Society 34(2): 449-468.

Fuchs, Tamara and Fabian Schäfer. 2019. "Normalizing Misogyny: Hate Speech and Verbal Abuse of Female Politicians on Japanese Twitter." Japan Forum.

Håkansson, Sandra. 2021. "Do Women Pay a Higher Price for Power?
Gender Bias in Political Violence in Sweden
." Journal of Politics. Online First.

Harmer, Emily and Rosalynd Southern. 2021. "Digital Microaggressions and Everyday Othering: An Analysis of Tweets Sent to Women Members of Parliament in the UK." Information, Communication, & Society. Online First.

Herrick, Rebekah, et al. 2019. “Physical Violence and Psychological Abuse against Female and Male Mayors in the United States.” Politics, Groups, and Identities. Online First.

Herrick, Rebekah and Sue Thomas. 2021. "Not Just Sticks and Stones: Psychological Abuse and Physical Violence among U.S. State Senators." Politics & Gender. First View.

Herrick, Rebekah, Sue Thomas, and Kate Bartholomy. 2021. "Gender, Power, and Colleague Aggression in U.S. State Senates." Political Research Quarterly. Online First.

Hopke, Christina C. 2019. "Is Congress Holding Itself to Account: Addressing Congress's Sexual Harassment Problem and the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 Reform Act." Notre Dame Law Review 94(5): 2159-2188.

Ilie, Cornelia. 2018. "'Behave Yourself, Woman!': Patterns of Gender Discrimination and Stereotyping in Parliamentary Interaction." Journal of Language and Politics 17(5): 594-616.

Johnson-Myers, Tracy-Ann. 2021. "Violence against Women in Politics:
Female Politicians’ Experience with Political Violence in Jamaica
." Bulletin of Latin American Research. Online First.

Jones, Hannah. 2019. "More in Common: The Domestication of Misogynist White Supremacy and the Assassination of Jo Cox." Ethnic and Racial Studies 42(14): 2431-2449.

Joshi, Devin K., Meseret F. Hailu, and Lauren J. Reising.2020. "Violators, Virtuous, or Victims? How Global Newspapers Represent the Female Member of Parliament." Feminist Media Studies 20(5): 692-712.

 

Kalaf-Hughes, Nicole and Debra Leiter. 2020. "That Woman from Michigan: How Gender Resentment Shapes the Efficacy of Stay-at-Home Policies." Politics & Gender 16(4): 983-990.


Khan, Ayesha, Zonia Yousuf, and Sana Naqvi. 2020. "Women Politicians Navigating the 'Hostile Environment' in Pakistan." IDS Bulletin 51(2): 43-61.

Kopytowska, Monika. 2021. "Xenophobia, Misogyny, and Rape Culture: Targeting Women in Cyberspace." Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 9(1): 76-99. 

Krook, Mona Lena. 2018. “Westminster Too: On Sexual Harassment in British Politics.” Political Quarterly 89(1): 65-72.

Kuperberg, Rebecca. 2018. “Intersectional Violence against Women in Politics.” Politics & Gender 14(4): 685-690.

Kuperberg, Rebecca. 2021. "Incongruous and Illegitimate: Antisemitic and Islamophobic Semiotic Violence against Women in Politics in the United Kingdom." Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 9(1): 100-126.

Leaman, Henry. 2019. "Narrowing the Government Trapdoor of the Government Employees Act." Notre Dame Law Review 95(1): 413-444.

Mahoney, Anna Mitchell, Meghan Kearney, and Carly Megan Shaffer. 2020. "#MeToo in the State House." In Politicking While Female, ed. Nichole M. Bauer. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 158-180.


Mateveke, Pauline and Rosemary Chikafa-Chipiro. 2020. "Misogyny, Social Media and ElectoralDemocracy in Zimbabwe’s 2018 Elections." In Social Media and Elections in Africa, Volume 2, ed. by Martin N. Ndlela Winston Mano. New York: Palgrave, 9-30.

McAdams, Katherine C. and Maurine H. Beasley. 1994. “Sexual Harassment of Washington Women Journalists.” Newspaper Research Journal 15(1): 127-139.

Mechkova, Valeriya and Steven L. Wilson. 2021. "Norms and Rage: Gender and Social Media in the 2018 U.S. Mid-Term Elections." Electoral Studies. Online First.

Muhammad, Sher, Muhammad Waris Awan, and Misbah Hussain. 2020. "Violence against Women in Politics: A Study of Backlash Effect of Gender Quota in Parliament of Pakistan." Research Journal of Social Sciences & Economics Review 1(4): 361-367.

Ncube, Gibson and Gwatisira Yemurai. 2020. "Discrimination Against Female Politicians on Social Media: An Analysis of Tweets in the Run-Up to the July 2018 Harmonised Elections in Zimbabwe." In Social Media and Elections in Africa, Volume 2, ed. by Martin N. Ndlela Winston Mano. New York: Palgrave, 59-76.

Palmer, Lisa Amanda. 2020. "Diane Abbott, Misogynoir, and the Politics of Black British Feminism's Anticolonial Imperatives." Sociological Review 68(3): 508-523.

Pérez-Arredondo, Carolina and Eduardo Graells-Garrido. 2021. "Twitter and Abortion: Online Hate against Pro-Choice Female Politicians
in Chile
." Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 9(1): 127-154.

Raney, Tracey. 2021. Addressing Violence and Harassment in Canada’s Senate: Critical Actors and Institutional Responses. Working Paper, Canadian Study of Parliament Group.

Raney, Tracey and Cheryl N. Collier. 2021. "Privilege and Gendered Violence in the Canadian and British Houses of Commons: A Feminist Institutionalist Analysis." Parliamentary Affairs. Online First.

Rasulo, Margaret. 2021. "Are Gold Hoop Earrings and a Dab of Red Lipstick Enough to Get Even Democrats on the Offensive? The Case of Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez." Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 9(1): 155-183.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2018. “The Law and Violence against Women in Politics.” Politics & Gender 14 (4): 676-680.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2018. Violence against Women in Politics in Latin America. Ph.D. Diss., Rutgers University.

 

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2020. “Violence against Women in Politics: Latin America in an Era of Backlash.” Signs 45(2): 302-310.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2020. "Criminalizing Violence against Women in Politics: Innovation, Diffusion, and Transformation." Politics & Gender. First View.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2021. "Latin America Leads the Way in Fighting Violence and Harassment against Women in Politics." European Journal of Politics and Gender 4(3): 463-465.

 

Rheault, Ludovic, Erica Rayment, and Andreea Musulan. 2019. “Politicians in the Line of Fire: Incivility and the Treatment of Women on Social Media.” Research and Politics 6(1): 1-7.

Rogers, Ashley. 2019. "'But the Law Won't Help Us': Challenges of Mobilizing Law 348 to Address Violence Against Women in Bolivia." Violence against Women.

Rojas Valverde, María Eugenia. 2010. “Gender-Based Political Harassment and Violence: Effects on the Political Work and Public Roles of Women.” New Solutions 230(4): 527-535.

Sawer, Marian. 2013. “Misogyny and Misrepresentation: Women in Australian Parliaments.” Political Science 65(1): 105-117.

Southern, Rosalynd and Emily Harmer. 2021. "Twitter, Incivility, and 'Everyday' Gendered Othering: An Analysis of Tweets Sent to UK Members of Parliament." Social Science Computer Review 39(2): 259-275.

Stabile, Bonnie, Aubrey Grant, Hemant Purohit, and Kelsey Harris. 2019. "Sex, Lies, and Stereotypes: Gendered Implications of Fake News for Women in Politics." Public Integrity 21(5): 491-502.

Stark, Stephanie and Sofía Collignon. 2021. "Sexual Predators in Contest for Public Office: How the American Electorate Responds to News of Allegations of Candidates Committing Sexual Assault and Harassment." Political Studies Review. Online First.

Steiner, Linda. 2017. "Women War Reporters' Resistance and Silence in the Face of Sexism and Sexual Violence." Media & Jornalismo 17(30): 11-26.

Stopfner, Maria. 2018. "Put Your 'Big Girl' Voice On: Parliamentary Heckling against Female MPs." Journal of Language and Politics 17(5): 617-635.

Tadros, Mariz. 2016. “Understanding Politically Motivated Sexual Assault in Protest Spaces: Evidence from Egypt (March 2011 to June 2013).” Social & Legal Studies 25(1): 93-110.

Tenove, Chris, and Heidi Tworek. 2020. Trolled on the Campaign Trail: Online Incivility and Abuse in Canadian Politics. Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Democratic Institutions, University of British Columbia.

Verge, Tània. 2020. "Too Few, Too Little: Parliaments’ Response to Sexism and Sexual Harassment." Parliamentary Affairs. Online First.

Verge, Tània. 2021. "Legislative Reform in Europe to Fight Violence against Women in Politics." European Journal of Politics and Gender. Online First.

Von Sikorski, Christian and Melanie Saumer. 2021. "Sexual Harassment
in Politics: News about Victims' Delayed Sexual Harassment Accusations and Effects on Victim Blaming: A Mediation Model
."  Mass Communication and Society 24(2): 259-287.

Wagner, Angelia. 2020. "Tolerating the Trolls? Gendered Perceptions of
Online Harassment of Politicians in Canada
." Feminist Media Studies. Online First.

Williams, Jamillah Bowman. 2018. #MeToo and Public Officials: A Post-Election Snapshot of Allegations and Consequences. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Law Center.

Zaki, Hind Ahmed. 2017. In the Shadow of the State: Gender Contestation and Legal Mobilization in the Context of the Arab Spring in Egypt and Tunisia. Ph.D. Diss., University of Washington.

Zulver, Julia. 2020. "How the Global Pandemic Intensifies Vulnerabilities for Colombia's Women Social Leaders." Bulletin of Latin American Research 39(S1): 23–27.
 

Zulver, Julia Margaret. 2021. "The Endurance of Women's Mobilization During 'Patriarchal Backlash': A Case from Colombia's Reconfiguring Armed Conflict." International Feminist Journal of Politics. Online First.

In Spanish​

 

Albaine, Laura. 2015. “Obstáculos y Desafíos de la Paridad de Género: Violencia Política, Sistema Electoral, e Interculturalidad.” Iconos 52: 145-162.

Albaine, Laura. 2016. “Paridad de Género y Violencia Política en Bolivia, Costa Rica, y Ecuador: Un Análisis Testimonial.” Ciencia Política 11(21): 335-363.

Albaine, Laura. 2021. "Violencia Política contra las Mujeres por Motivos de Género en América Latina: Estrategias Legales y el Rol de los Organismos Electorales." Elecciones 20(21): 163-187. 

Archenti, Nélida and Laura Albaine. 2013. “Los Desafíos de la Paridad de Género: Tensión Normativa y Violencia Política en Bolivia y Ecuador.” Revista Punto Género 3: 195-219.

Banderas Miranda, Ana Elisa. 2020. "Violencia Política en Razón de Género en el Proceso Electoral 2017-2018, en la Ciudad de México." Regiones y Desarrollo Sustentable 20(38): 100-120.


Castellanos Salazar, Ana Bertha and Angélica Cazarín Martínez. 2020. "Violencia Política de Género en Tlaxcala: Legisladoras en las Elecciones de 2018." Regiones y Desarrollo Sustentable 20(38): 65-78.

​Cerva Cerna, Daniela. 2014. “Participación Política y Violencia de Género en México.” Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales 59(222): 117-140.

Fernández-Matos, Dhayana Carolina and María Nohemi González-Martínez, eds. 2020. Violencia Política contra las Mujeres. Barranquilla:
Ediciones Universidad Simón Bolívar.

 

Freidenberg, Flavia and Gabriella Del Valle Pérez, eds. Cuando Hacer Política Te Cuesta la Vida. Mexico City: UNAM.

Freidenberg, Flavia and Karolina M. Gilas. 2020. Violencia Política de Género y Armonización Legislativa Multinivel en México. Documento de Trabajo del Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, UNAM.

Freidenberg, Flavia and Karolina M. Gilas. 2021. "¿Normas Poco Exigentes? Los Niveles de Exigencia Normativa de las Leyes contra la
Violencia Política en América Latina
." Ponencia preparada para el XXXII Congreso Internacional de Estudios Electorales de la Sociedad
Mexicana de Estudios Electorales, 12-15 de octubre.

Gilas, Karolina M. 2020. "Violencia Política en Razón de Género y Nulidad de las Elecciones Locales en México." Regiones y Desarrollo Sustentable 20(38): 79-99.

Gilas, Karolina M. and Beatriz Sánchez. 2021. “Partidos Políticos Mexicanos frente a la Violencia de Género: Evaluando sus Normas Internas.” Elecciones 20(21): 43-76.

Guadarrama Sánchez, Gloria Jovita and Emma del Carmen Aguilar Pinto. 2021. "Las Diversas Lecturas del Concepto de Violencia Política en Razón de Género en México (2010-2020)."  Convergencia Revista de Ciencias Sociales 28: 1-44.


Elsa Esperanza Gualdrón López, Elsa Esperanza. 2020.  Mujeres en el Poder y Violencia Política en Ecuador (2013-2018). Tesina para obtener el título de especialización en Género, Violencia y Derechos Humanos, FLACSO Ecuador. 

Hernández García, Ma. Aide and María Guadalupe Pérez Solís. 2020. "La Lucha contra la Violencia Política de Género en Guanajuato."  Regiones y Desarrollo Sustentable 20(38): 37-63.

Hernández Téllez, Josefina. 2020. "Frente a la Paridad, la Violencia Política."  Regiones y Desarrollo Sustentable 20(38): 172-189.

Martínez Herrera, Karla Georgina. 2021. "Estropear la Democracia Mediante el Acoso y la Violencia a Mujeres que Participan en la Política en El Salvador." Visioni LatinoAmericane 13(25): 105-122.

Morales Alfonso, Liudmila and Lizeth Pérez Cárdenas. 2021. “Violencia Política contra las Mujeres en México y Ecuador (2016-2019).” Colombia Internacional 107: 113-137.

Ravel Cuevas, Dania Paola. 2018. "Violencia Política contra las Mujeres en Razón de Género: Cifras y Casos del Proceso Electoral 2017-2018."
Buen Gobierno 25: 1-8.

Rodríguez Calva, María Fernanda and Sonia M. Frias. 2020. "Violencia contra las Mujeres en Política. El caso de la Asamblea Constituyente de la Ciudad de México." Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales 65(240): 359-395.

Sarabia Ríos, Cecilia and Rosa Isabel Medina Parra. 2020. "Violencia política contra las mujeres en Chihuahua, observancia de los derechos humanos en las regidoras de Ciudad Juárez, 2016-2018." Regiones y Desarrollo Sustentable 20(38): 121-144.

Vázquez Correa, Lorena and Martha Patricia Patiño Fierro. 2020. “Violencia Política contra las Mujeres y Paridad de Género: De la Presencia en el Poder a la Transformación de la Política.” Cuaderno de Investigación No. 67.  Ciudad de México: Instituto Belisario Domínguez, Senado de la República.

In Portuguese

Araújo,  Rafaela dos Santos Aguiar de Castro. 2020.  Violência política de Gênero contra a Mulher no Brasil. Bacharel em Direito,  Centro Universitário de Brasília.

Pinho, Tássia Rabelo de. 2020. "Debaixo do Tapete: A Violência Política de Gênero e o Silêncio do Conselho de Ética da Câmara dos Deputados." Revista Estudos Feministas 28(2): 1-13.

In French

Benbassa, Esther, ed. 2018. Violences Sexistes et Sexuelles en Politique. Paris: CNRS.