research

 
Overviews & Debates
Academic Work

Bardall, Gabrielle, Elin Bjarnegård, and Jennifer M. Piscopo. 2019. “How is Political Violence Gendered? Disentangling Motives, Forms, and Impacts.” Political Studies.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2017. “Violence against Women in Politics.” Journal of Democracy 28(1): 74-88.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2018. “Westminster Too: On Sexual Harassment in British Politics.” Political Quarterly 89(1): 65-72.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2019. "Global Feminist Collaborations and the Concept of Violence against Women in Politics." Journal of International Affairs 72 (2): 77-94.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2020. Violence against Women in Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanín. 2016. “Gender and Political Violence in Latin America: Concepts, Debates, and Solutions.”  Política y Gobierno 23(1): 125-157.

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanín. 2016. “Violence Against Women in Politics: A Defense of the Concept.” Política y Gobierno 23(2): 459-490.

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanín. 2020. ​“The Cost of Doing Politics? Analyzing Violence and Harassment against Female Politicians.” Perspectives on Politics. Printable PDF

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2016. “State Capacity, Criminal Justice, and Political Rights: Rethinking Violence against Women in Politics.” Política y Gobierno 23(2): 437-458.

In Spanish

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanin. 2016. “Violencia contra las mujeres en política: en defensa del concepto.” Política y Gobierno 23(2): 459-490.

 

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanin. 2016. “Género y violencia política en América Latina: Conceptos, debates y soluciones.” Política y Gobierno 23(1): 127-162.

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2016. "Capacidad estatal, justicia criminal
y derechos políticos: Nueva mirada al debate sobre la violencia
contra las mujeres en política
." Política y Gobierno 23(2): 437-458.

Program Guidance

National Democratic Institute. 2016. #NotTheCost: Stopping Violence against Women in Politics: Program Guidance. Washington, DC: NDI.

Practitioner Reports
Violence in Elections

Bardall, Gabrielle. 2011. Breaking the Mold: Understanding Gender and Electoral Violence. Washington, DC: IFES.

Bardall, Gabrielle. 2018. Violence against Women in Elections in Zimbabwe: An IFES Assessment. Washington, DC: IFES.

 

Hubbard, Caroline and Claire De Soi. 2016. Votes without Violence. Washington, DC: NDI. Website with data.

Huber, Jessica and Lisa Kammerud. 2016. Violence against Women in Elections. Arlington, VA: IFES.

Semakafu, Ave Maria. 2016. Violence against Women in Elections: VAWE Evidence for 2015 Tanzania General Elections. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Women Cross-Party Platform and UN Women.

United Nations Development Programme and UN Women. 2015. Inclusive Electoral Processes. New York: UNDP and UN Women.

United Nations Development Programme and UN Women. 2017. Preventing Violence against Women in Elections: A Programming Guide. New York: UNDP and UN Women.

Violence against Politicians

 

Amnesty International. 2018. Troll Patrol Findings.

 

Atalanta. 2018. (Anti)Social Media: The Benefits and Pitfalls of Digital for Female Politicians

Centre for Social Research and UN Women. 2014. Violence against Women in Politics: A Study Conducted in India, Nepal, and Pakistan. New Delhi: CSR/UN Women.

Culhane, Leah. 2019. Sexual Harassment in Parliament: Protecting MPs, Peers, Volunteers, and Staff. London: Fawcett Society.

Dhrodia, Azmina. 2017. “Unsocial Media: Tracking Twitter Abuse against Women MPs.” Medium, September 3. 

Digital Rights Foundation. 2018. Online Participation of Female Politicians in Pakistan’s General Elections 2018

Di Meco, Lucina. 2019. #ShePersisted: Women, Politics, & Power in the New Media World. Washington, DC: The Wilson Center.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2016. Sexism, Harassment, and Violence against Women Parliamentarians. Geneva: IPU.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2018. Sexism, Harassment, and Violence against Women in Parliaments in Europe. Geneva: IPU and Council of Europe. 

National Democratic Institute. 2018. No Party to Violence: Analyzing Violence against Women in Political Parties. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Democratic Institute. 2019. Tweets That Chill: Analyzing Online Violence against Women in Politics. Washington, DC: NDI.

Šimonović, Dubravka. 2018. A/73/301: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences on Violence against Women in Politics. New York: UN.

In Spanish

 

Arboleda, María. 2012. Levantado el Velo: Estudio Sobre Acoso y Violencia Política en Contra de las Mujeres Autoridades Públicas Electas a Nivel Local en Ecuador. Quito. ONU Mujeres and AMUNE.

Barrera, Lourdes V., Anaiz Zamora, Érika Pérez Domínguez, Ixchel Aguirre, and Jessica Esculloa. 2018. Violencia Política a través de la Tecnologías en México. Mexico City: Luchadoras and NDI.

Escalante, Ana Cecilia and Nineth  Méndez. 2011. Sistematización de Experiencias de Acoso Político que Viven o Han Vivido las Mujeres que Ocupan Puestos de Elección Popular en el Nivel Local. Santo Domingo: ONU Mujeres and INAMU.

Herrera, Morena, Mitzy Arias, and Sara García. 2011. Hostilidad y Violencia Política: Develando Realidades de Mujeres Autoridades Municipales. San Salvador: INSTRAW and ISDEMU.

Hevia Rocha, Teresa. 2017. Diagnóstico sobre las Causas de la Violencia Política contra las Mujeres en México. Mexico City: PRI.

Machicao, Ximena. 2004. Acoso Político: Un Tema Urgente que Afrontar. La Paz: PADEP-GTZ.

Quintanilla Zapata, Tammy. 2012. Estudio Sobre el Acoso Político hacia las Mujeres en el Perú. Lima: Centro Flora Tristán, Diakonía Perú, and Calad.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2016. Mujeres y Participación Política: El Fenómeno de la Violencia contra las Mujeres en Política. Bogotá: Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy.

Rojas Valverde, María Eugenia. 2012. Acoso y Violencia Política en Contra de Mujeres Autoridades Públicas Electas en los Gobiernos Locales-Municipales en Bolivia. La Paz: ONU Mujeres, ACOBOL, and AECID.

Rojas Valverde, María Eugenia. 2014. Derechos Políticos de las Mujeres: Entre la Seguridad y la Violencia Política de Alto Riesgo. La Paz: Tribunal Supremo Electoral.

Torres García, Isabel. 2010. Derechos Políticos de las Mujeres y Acoso Político Como Práctica de Discriminación. San José: ONU-Habitat Costa Rica.

Violence against Staffers and Volunteers

Culhane, Leah. 2019. Sexual Harassment in Parliament: Protecting MPs, Peers, Volunteers, and Staff. London: Fawcett Society.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2018. Sexism, Harassment, and Violence against Women in Parliaments in Europe. Geneva: IPU and Council of Europe. 

National Democratic Institute. 2018. No Party to Violence: Analyzing Violence against Women in Political Parties. Washington, DC: NDI.

Young Women's Leadership Network. 2018. It's Time: Addressing Sexual Violence in Political Institutions.

Violence against Activists

 

APWLD. 2007. Claiming Rights, Claiming Justice: A Guidebook on Women Human Right Defenders. Chiangmai: Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development.

 

Asoka, Kaavya. 2012. Global Report on the Situation of Women Human Rights Defenders. Bangkok: WHRDIC.

Barcia, Inmaculada. 2011. Urgent Responses for Women Human Rights Defenders at Risk: Mapping and Preliminary Assessment. Toronto: AWID.

Barcia, Inmaculada. 2014. Our Right to Safety: Women Human Rights Defenders’ Holistic Approach to Protection. Toronto: AWID.

Barcia, Inmaculada and Analía Penchaszadeh. 2012. Ten Insights to Strengthen Responses for Women Human Rights Defenders at Risk. Toronto: AWID.

Center for Reproductive Rights. 2009. Defending Human Rights: Abortion Providers Facing Threats, Restrictions, and Harassment. New York: Center for Reproductive Rights.

Forst, Michel. 2019. A/HRC/40/60: Situation of Women Human Rights Defenders. New York: United Nations.

Human Rights Watch. 2016. “Good Girls Don’t Protest”: Repression and Abuse of Women Human Rights Defenders, Activists, and Protesters in Sudan. New York: HRW.

Human Rights Watch. 2019. “The Breath of the Government on My Back”: Attacks on Women’s Rights in Poland. New York: HRW.

IM-Defensoras. 2015. Violence against Women Human Rights Defenders in Mesoamerica: 2012-2014 Report

Kishi, Roudabeh, Melissa Pavlik, and Hilary Matfess. 2019. Terribly and Terrifyingly Normal’: Political Violence Targeting Women.

 

Langhor, Vickie. 2013. ‘This Is Our Square’: Fighting Sexual Assault at Cairo Protests.” Middle East Report 268: 18-25.

National Democratic Institute. 2018. No Party to Violence: Analyzing Violence against Women in Political Parties. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Democratic Institute. 2019. Tweets That Chill: Analyzing Online Violence against Women in Politics. Washington, DC: NDI.

Real, Mary Jane N. 2005. International Consultation on Women Human Rights Defenders: Evaluation Report. Chiang Mai: International Campaign on Women Human Rights Defenders.

Rothschild, Cynthia. 2005. Written Out: How Sexuality Is Used to Attack Women’s Organizing. New York/New Brunswick: IGLHRC and CWGL.

Sekaggya, Margaret. 2010. HRC/16/44: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders. New York: United Nations.

In Spanish

Amnesty International. 2018. Pañuelos Verdes: Relatos de la Violencia Durante el Debate por la Legalización de l a Interrupción Legal del Embarazo. Buenos Aires: Amnistía Internacional.

Violence against Journalists

Amnesty International. 2018. Troll Patrol Findings

Barton, Alana and Hannah Storm. 2014. Violence and Harassment against Women in the News Media: A Global Picture. Washington, DC: IWMF and INSI.

Committee to Protect Journalists. 2016. Attacks on the Press: Gender and Media Freedom Worldwide. New York: CPJ.

Ferrier, Michelle. 2018. Attacks and Harassment: The Impact on Female Journalists and Their Reporting. Washington, DC: TrollBusters and IWMF.

Matloff, Judith. 2007. Unspoken: Foreign Correspondents and Sexual Abuse.” Columbia Journalism Review 46(1): 22-23.

Mijatović, Dunja. 2016. New Challenges to Freedom of Expression: Countering Online Abuse of Female Journalists. Vienna: OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media.

Storm, Hannah and Helena Williams, eds. 2012. No Woman’s Land: On the Frontlines with Female Reporters. London: INSI.

Wolfe, Lauren. 2011. The Silencing Crime: Sexual Violence and Journalists. New York: Committee to Protect Journalists.

Scholarly Research
In English

Anderson, Karrin Vasby. 1999. "'Rhymes with Rich': 'Bitch' as a Tool of Containment in Contemporary American Politics." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 2(4): 599-623.

Ballington, Julie, 2018. “Turning the Tide on Violence against Women in Politics: How Are We Measuring Up?” Politics & Gender 14(4): 695-701.

 

Bardall, Gabrielle. 2013. “Gender-Specific Election Violence: The Role of Information and Communication Technologies.” Stability 2(3): 1-11.

Berry, Marie E., Yolande Bouka, and Marilyn Muthoni Kamuru. 2020. "Implementing Inclusion: Gender, Quotas, Inequality, and Backlash in Kenya." Politics & Gender. Online first.

Berthet, Valentine and Johanna Kantola. 2020. "Gender, Violence, and Political Institutions: Struggles over Sexual Harassment in the European Parliament." Social Politics. Online First.

Biroli, Flávia. 2016. “Political Violence against Women in Brazil: Expressions and Definitions.” Direito & Práxis 7(15): 557-589.

Biroli, Flávia. 2018. “Violence against Women and Reactions to Gender Equality in Politics.” Politics & Gender 14(4): 681-685.

Bjarnegård, Elin. 2018. “Making Gender Visible in Election Violence.” Politics & Gender 14(4): 690-695.

Collier, Cheryl N. and Tracey Raney. 2018. “Canada’s Member-to-Member Code of Conduct on Sexual Harassment in the House of Commons: Progress or Regress?” Canadian Journal of Political Science 51(4): 795-815.

Collier, Cheryl N., and Tracey Raney. 2018. "Understanding Sexism and Sexual Harassment in Politics: A Comparison of Westminster Parliaments in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada." Social Politics 25(3): 432-455.

 

Dalton, Emma. 2017. “Sexual Harassment of Women Politicians in Japan.” Journal of Gender-Based Violence 1(2): 205-219.

Dalton, Emma. 2019. "A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Sexual Harassment in the Japanese Political and Media Worlds." Women's Studies International Forum 77: 1-9.

Fuchs, Tamara and Fabian Schäfer. 2019. "Normalizing Misogyny: Hate Speech and Verbal Abuse of Female Politicians on Japanese Twitter." Japan Forum.

Herrick, Rebekah, et al. 2019. “Physical Violence and Psychological Abuse against Female and Male Mayors in the United States.” Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Ilie, Cornelia. 2018. "'Behave Yourself, Woman!': Patterns of Gender Discrimination and Stereotyping in Parliamentary Interaction." Journal of Language and Politics 17(5): 594-616.

Kuperberg, Rebecca. 2018. “Intersectional Violence against Women in Politics.” Politics & Gender 14(4): 685-690.

McAdams, Katherine C. and Maurine H. Beasley. 1994. “Sexual Harassment of Washington Women Journalists.” Newspaper Research Journal 15(1): 127-139.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2018. “The Law and Violence against Women in Politics.” Politics & Gender 14 (4): 676-680.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2018. Violence against Women in Politics in Latin America. Ph.D. Diss., Rutgers University.

 

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2020. “Violence against Women in Politics: Latin America in an Era of Backlash.” Signs 45(2): 302-310.

Restrepo Sanín, Juliana. 2020. "Criminalizing Violence against Women in Politics: Innovation, Diffusion, and Transformation." Politics & Gender. First View.

 

Rheault, Ludovic, Erica Rayment, and Andreea Musulan. 2019. “Politicians in the Line of Fire: Incivility and the Treatment of Women on Social Media.” Research and Politics 6(1): 1-7.

Rogers, Ashley. 2019. "'But the Law Won't Help Us': Challenges of Mobilizing Law 348 to Address Violence Against Women in Bolivia." Violence against Women.

Rojas Valverde, María Eugenia. 2010. “Gender-Based Political Harassment and Violence: Effects on the Political Work and Public Roles of Women.” New Solutions 230(4): 527-535.

Sawer, Marian. 2013. “Misogyny and Misrepresentation: Women in Australian Parliaments.” Political Science 65(1): 105-117.

Southern, Rosalynd and Emily Harmer. 2019. "Twitter, Incivility, and 'Everyday' Gendered Othering: An Analysis of Tweets Sent to UK Members of Parliament." Social Science Computer Review. Online first.

 

Stabile, Bonnie, Aubrey Grant, Hemant Purohit, and Kelsey Harris. 2019. "Sex, Lies, and Stereotypes: Gendered Implications of Fake News for Women in Politics." Public Integrity 21(5): 491-502.

Steiner, Linda. 2017. "Women War Reporters' Resistance and Silence in the Face of Sexism and Sexual Violence." Media & Jornalismo 17(30): 11-26.

Stopfner, Maria. 2018. "Put Your 'Big Girl' Voice On: Parliamentary Heckling against Female MPs." Journal of Language and Politics 17(5): 617-635.

Tadros, Mariz. 2016. “Understanding Politically Motivated Sexual Assault in Protest Spaces: Evidence from Egypt (March 2011 to June 2013).” Social & Legal Studies 25(1): 93-110.

Williams, Jamillah Bowman. 2018. #MeToo and Public Officials: A Post-Election Snapshot of Allegations and Consequences. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Law Center.

Zaki, Hind Ahmed. 2017. In the Shadow of the State: Gender Contestation and Legal Mobilization in the Context of the Arab Spring in Egypt and Tunisia. Ph.D. Diss., University of Washington.

In Spanish​

 

Albaine, Laura. 2015. “Obstáculos y Desafíos de la Paridad de Género: Violencia Política, Sistema Electoral, e Interculturalidad.” Iconos 52: 145-162.

Albaine, Laura. 2016. “Paridad de Género y Violencia Política en Bolivia, Costa Rica, y Ecuador: Un Análisis Testimonial.” Ciencia Política 11(21): 335-363.

Archenti, Nélida and Laura Albaine. 2013. “Los Desafíos de la Paridad de Género: Tensión Normativa y Violencia Política en Bolivia y Ecuador.” Revista Punto Género 3: 195-219.

​Cerva Cerna, Daniela. 2014. “Participación Política y Violencia de Género en México.” Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales 59(222): 117-140.

 

Freidenberg, Flavia and Gabriella Del Valle Pérez, eds. Cuando Hacer Política Te Cuesta la Vida. Mexico City: UNAM.

Rodríguez Calva, María Fernanda and Sonia M. Frias. 2020. "Violencia contra las Mujeres en Política. El caso de la Asamblea Constituyente de la Ciudad de México." Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales 65(240): 359-395.

In French

Benbassa, Esther, ed. 2018. Violences Sexistes et Sexuelles en Politique. Paris: CNRS.

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© 2020 by Mona Lena Krook, Rutgers University (NJ, USA)

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