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International Organizations
Resolutions and Declarations


CEDAW Committee. 2017. General Recommendation No. 35 on Gender Based Violence against Women, Updating General Recommendation No. 19. Geneva: CEDAW Committee.

Convening Committee. 2019. Declaration of Principles Guidelines on Integrating Gender Considerations in International Observation, including Violence against Women in Elections. Washington, DC: NDI.

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers. 2019. Recommendation CM/Rec(2019)1: Preventing and Combating Sexism. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Council of Europe Congress of Local and Regional Authorities. 2020. Resolution 459 (2020): Fighting Sexist Violence against Women in Politics at Local and Regional Level. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. 2019. Resolution 2274 (2109): Promoting Parliaments Free of Sexism and Sexual Harassment. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Inter-American Commission of Women. 2015. Declaration on Political Harassment and Violence against Women. Washington, DC: OAS. ES

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2016. Resolution on the Freedom of Women to Participate in Political Processes Fully, Safely, and Without Interference. Geneva: IPU.

International Labor Organization. 2019. Convention Concerning the Elimination of Violence and Harassment in the World of Work. Geneva: ILO.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Ministerial Council. 2018. Decision 3/18: Safety of Journalists. Milan: OSCE.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Ministerial Council. 2018. Decision 4/18: Preventing and Combating Violence against Women. Milan: OSCE. 

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Representative on Freedom of the Media. 2018. #SOFJO: Safety of Female Journalists Online. Vienna: OSCE.

Parliamentarians for Global Action. 2021. S.T.O.P. Violence Against Women Parliamentarians. New York: PGA.

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2007. Consenso de Quito. Santiago: ECLAC.

United Nations General Assembly. 2011. Resolution 66/130: Women and Political Participation. New York: UN.

United Nations General Assembly. 2013. Resolution 68/181:  Protecting Women Human Rights Defenders. New York: UN.

United Nations General Assembly. 2018. Resolution 73/148: Intensification of Efforts to Prevent and Eliminate All Forms of Violence against Women and Girls: Sexual Harassment. New York: UN.

United Nations Secretary General. 2021. Women’s Full and Effective Participation and Decision-Making in Public Life, as well as the Elimination of Violence, for Achieving Gender Equality and the Empowerment of All Women and Girls. New York: UN.

Compendiums of Best Practices (see also Book)


Drenjanin, Jelena. 2020. Fighting Sexist Violence against Women in Politics at Local and Regional Level. Strasbourg: Council of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe.

Inter-American Commission of Women. 2017. Inter-American Model Law on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women in Political Life. Washington, DC: OAS.

Inter-American Commission of Women. 2019. Model Protocol for Political Parties: Preventing, Addressing, Punishing, and Eradicating Violence Against Women in Political Life. Washington, DC: OAS.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2019. Guidelines for the Elimination of Sexism, Harassment, and Violence against Women in Parliament. Geneva: IPU.

National Democratic Institute. 2021. #NotTheCost: Stopping Violence against Women in Politics: A Renewed Call to Action. Washington, DC: NDI.

Palmieri, Sonia. 2011. Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Šimonović, Dubravka. 2018. A/73/301: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences on Violence against Women in Politics. New York: UN.

Šimonović, Dubravka. 2020. A/HRC/44/52: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences on Combating Violence against Women Journalists. New York: UN.

UN Women. 2021. Guidance Note: Preventing Violence against Women in Politics. New York: UN Women.

UN Women, Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, and UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women. 2018. Violence against Women in Politics: Expert Group Meeting Report and Recommendations. New York: UN Women and Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights.

Governments & Political Parties
Legal Reforms

Ley 26.485: Ley de protección integral a las mujeres (in violence against women legislation, Argentina, added via Ley 27.533, 2019)

Ley N° 243: Contra el acoso y violencia política a las mujeres (stand-alone law, Bolivia, 2012)

LIei 17/2020, del 22 de desembre, de modificació de la Llei 5/2008, del dret de les dones a erradicar la violència masclista (in violence against women law, Catalonia, 2020; Spanish translation)

Decreto N° 520: Ley especial integral para una vida libre de violencia para las mujeres (in violence against women legislation, El Salvador, 2011)

Ley Nº 82:  Medidas de prevención contra la violencia en las mujeres y reforma el código penal para tipificar el femicidio (in violence against women legislation, Panama, 2013)


Ley N° 5777: Protección integral a las mujeres, contra toda forma de violencia (in violence against women legislation, Paraguay, 2016)


Loi organique n° 2017-58 du 11 août 2017, relative à l’élimination de la violence à l’égard des femmes (in violence against women legislation, Tunisia, 2017)

Legal Guidance

Crown Prosecution Service. 2019. Responding to Intimidating
Behaviour: Information for Parliamentarians
. London: CPS.



Protocolo para la atención de la violencia política contra las mujeres en razón de género (Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación, Mexico, 2017)

Protocolos de Atención de la Violencia Política contra las Mujeres en razón de Género en los Partidos Políticos (Mexico, 2017-)

Official Reports

Anti-Harassment, Equality, and Access Panel. 2018. Advancing Women in Politics and Addressing Sexual Harassment in Political Campaigns. Springfield: AHEA Panel.

Committee on Standards in Public Life. 2017. Intimidation in Public Life. London: CSPL.

Cox, Laura. 2018. The Bullying and Harassment of House of Commons Staff Independent Inquiry Report. London: House of Commons Commission.​

White, Gemma. 2019. Bullying and Harassment of MPs’ Parliamentary Staff Independent Inquiry. London: House of Commons.

Codes of Conduct

Jo Cox Foundation and the Committee on Standards in Public Life. 2019. Joint Statement on Conduct of Political Party Members.

Civil Society

For more civil society strategies, see Book.


Amar, Cécile et al. 2015. “Nous, Femmes Journalistes Politiques et Victimes de Sexisme…” Libération, May 4.  

Bagshaw, Sally, M. Lorena González, Lisa Herbold, Debora Juarez, and Kshama Sawant. 2016. “Don’t Let Hateful Voices Intimidate You into Silence or Inaction.” Seattle Times, May 11. 

Bianchi, Dorina et al. 2016. “Basta Con gli Insulti alle Donne in Politica.” La Repubblica, March 18. 

Civicus et al. 2021. Protect Women’s Civic Freedoms to Enhance their Role in Public Life. Global call for signed by civil society organizations around the world.

Le Collectif “Levons l’omerta.” 2016. “Harcèlement et Politique: ‘Pour que l’Impunité Cesse.’” Libération, May 9. 

Iwu, Adama et al. 2017. "We Said Enough." Los Angeles Times, October 16.

Speier, Jackie et al. 2020. Letter to Facebook on Gendered Disinformation and Misogynistic Attacks against Women Leaders. Signed by 100 women lawmakers in the U.S. and around the world.

TIME'S UP Now. 2020. "We Have Her Back: News Coverage for the Vice Presidential Candidate." Open letter to news organizations.

Trainings and Guides

European Women's Lobby. 2019. #NetHerRights Trainings

Glitch. 2022. Dealing with Digital Threats to Democracy: A Toolkit to Help Women in Public Life Be Safer Online. London: Glitch.

International Women's Media Foundation. 2020. Coalition against Online Violence.

McGing, Claire and Valesca Lima. 2022. Toolkit on Social Media Policies for Political Parties. Dublin: National Women's Council.

National Democratic Institute. 2021. Addressing Online Misogyny and Gendered Disinformation: A How-To Guide. Washington, DC: NDI.

National Police Chiefs' Council, Electoral Commission, Crown Prosecution Service, and the College of Policing. 2021. Joint Guidance for Candidates in Elections.

She Should Run. 2020. How to Call Out and Shut Down Sexism in Politics

UltraViolet. 2021. Reporting in an Era of Disinformation: Fairness Media Guide for Covering Women and People of Color Without Bias.

Solidarity Campaigns

Não Seremos Interrompidas. Campaign for measures to combat violence against black women in politics in Brazil. 

Parity Bot. Twitter accounts for Canadian, US, and New Zealand elections.



Women Human Rights Defenders International Coalition. 2015. Gendering Documentation: A Manual For and About Women Human Rights Defenders

Security Strategies


International Federation of Journalists. 2017. Byte Back: A Journalist’s Guide to Combat Cyber Harassment in South Asia. Brussels: IFJ.

TrollBusters: Online Pest Control for Women Journalists

Tadros, Mariz. 2015. “Contentious and Prefigurative Politics: Vigilante Groups’ Struggle against Sexual Violence in Egypt (2011-2013).” Development and Change 46(6): 1345-1368.

UN Women and INE. 2021. Guía de Seguridad de Instagram para Mujeres en Política.

Wilfore, Kristina. 2022. A Digital Resilience Toolkit for Women in Politics:
Persisting and Fighting Back Against Misogyny and Digital Platforms’ Failures
. #ShePersisted.

Self Care

Barry, Jane with Jelena Đorđević. 2007. What’s the Point of Revolution if We Can’t Dance? Boulder, CO: Urgent Action Fund.

Barry, Jane with Vahida Nainar. 2008. Insiste, Resiste, Persiste, Existe: Women Human Rights Defenders’ Security Strategies. Ottawa: Urgent Action Fund, Front Line, and Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation.

Cárdenas, Ana María and Nallely Guadalupe Tello Méndez. 2017. “Self-Care as a Political Strategy.” Sur 14(26): 171-180.

IM-Defensoras. 2013. “A Feminist Alternative for the Protection, Self-Care, and Safety of Women Human Rights Defenders in Mesoamerica.” Journal of Human Rights Practice 5(3): 446-459.

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